Controlled-Release Fertilizers Show Promise for Sustainable Agriculture
In a research paper published in June 2023, a team of scientists led by Xueping Wang scrutinized the benefits of controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) encapsulated by organic-inorganic composite membranes (OICMs). The study explores the necessity of transitioning from traditional agricultural fertilizers to CRFs, particularly those coated with OICMs, as a measure to enhance agricultural sustainability and mitigate environmental impact.
The Urgency for an Alternative
Traditional fertilizers have long been criticized for their low nutrient use efficiency and detrimental environmental impact. With a forecasted world population peak of 9.7 billion by 2070, the need for efficient and sustainable fertilization methods is becoming increasingly urgent. Traditional fertilizers, such as nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus types, exhibit low nutrient utilization efficiency—ranging from 30-40% for nitrogen to just 2-5% for trace elements.
The Advantages of CRFs
CRFs address many issues plaguing traditional fertilizers. The review indicates that CRFs reduce the amount of fertilizer required and improve nutrient availability to plants. Encapsulation by OICMs offers a dual benefit of biocompatibility and mechanical robustness, leading to high water retention and drought resistance in crops. This not only enhances plant growth but also cuts down on labor and costs associated with frequent fertilization.
One of the noteworthy merits of CRFs encapsulated by OICMs is their reduced environmental impact. Conventional fertilizers are known to contaminate water bodies, contribute to soil compaction, and release greenhouse gases. The slow-release characteristics of CRFs minimize these problems. Biodegradable polymers like PVA, chitosan, and cellulose used as coating materials for CRFs offer an additional environmental safeguard.
Classification and Release Mechanisms
The researchers also categorize CRFs based on their coating materials into two main types: coated and matrices. Both types can further be subdivided based on their hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, as well as organic and inorganic components. The release process of nutrients from CRFs is nonlinear and occurs in three stages: the lag period, the constant release period, and the decay period.
The study is pivotal in highlighting the advantages and mechanics of CRFs encapsulated by OICMs. As the world grapples with rapid population growth and subsequent food security challenges, adopting sustainable and efficient fertilization methods like CRFs is imperative for modern agriculture. The paper concludes by stating that the utilization of such advanced fertilizers is not merely an option but a necessity for sustainable agricultural development.
The research paper provides a comprehensive update and insights for future trends in the field of fertilizers, emphasizing that CRFs encapsulated by OICMs have the potential to revolutionize modern and sustainable agriculture. The full text of the research is published on ScienceDirect.